Glossary Navigation


Adjusted earnings per share (EPS)

Earnings per share based on revenue profit plus profits/(losses) on trading properties and long-term development contracts all after tax.

Adjusted net asset value (NAV) per share

NAV per share adjusted to add back the adjustment arising from the de-recognition of the bond exchange, together with cumulative fair value movements on interest-rate swaps and similar instruments.

Adjusted net debt

Net debt excluding cumulative fair value movements on interest-rate swaps and the adjustment arising from the de-recognition of the bond exchange.

Average unexpired lease term

Excludes short-term lettings such as car parks and advertising hoardings, residential leases and long ground leases.

Return to top


Book value

The amount at which assets and liabilities are reported in the financial statements.


Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method.

Return to top


Combined portfolio

The combined portfolio is our wholly-owned investment property portfolio combined with our share of the properties held in joint ventures. Unless stated these are the pro-forma numbers we use when discussing the investment property business.

Completed developments

Completed developments consist of those properties previously included in the development programme which have been transferred from the development programme since 1 April 2009.

Return to top


Development pipeline

The Group’s development programme together with proposed developments.

Development programme

The development programme consists of committed developments (being projects which are approved and the building contract let), authorised developments (those projects approved by the Board for which the building contract has not yet been let), projects under construction and developments which have reached practical completion within the last two years but are not yet 95% let.

Development surplus

Excess of latest valuation over the total development cost (TDC).

Diluted figures

Reported amount adjusted to include the effects of potential dilutive shares issuable under employee share schemes.

Return to top


Earnings per share (EPS)

Profit after taxation attributable to owners of the Parent divided by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the period.


European Public Real Estate Association.

EPRA net initial yield

EPRA net initial yield is defined within EPRA’s Best Practice Recommendations as the annualised rental income based on the cash rents passing at the balance sheet date, less non-recoverable property operating expenses, divided by the gross market value of the property. It is consistent with the net initial yield calculated by the Group’s external valuers.

Equivalent yield

Calculated by the Group’s external valuers, equivalent yield is the internal rate of return from an investment property, based on the gross outlays for the purchase of a property (including purchase costs), reflecting reversions to current market rent, and such items as voids and non-recoverable expenditure but disregarding potential changes in market rents. The calculation assumes rent is received annually in arrears.

Gross estimated rental value (ERV)

The estimated market rental value of lettable space as determined biannually by the Group’s valuers.

Exceptional item

An item of income or expense that is deemed to be sufficiently material, either by its size or nature, to require separate disclosure.

Return to top


Fair value movement

An accounting adjustment to change the book value of an asset or liability to its market value.

Finance lease

A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership from the lessor to the lessee.

Return to top



Total borrowings, including bank overdrafts, less short-term deposits, corporate bonds and cash, at book value, plus cumulative fair value movements on financial derivatives as a percentage of total equity. For adjusted gearing, see note 28 in the financial statements.

Return to top


Head lease

A lease under which the Group holds an investment property.

Return to top


Interest Cover Ratio (ICR)

A calculation of a company’s ability to meet its interest payments on outstanding debt.

Interest-rate swap

A financial instrument where two parties agree to exchange an interest rate obligation for a predetermined amount of time. These are used by the Group to convert floating-rate debt or investments to fixed rates.

Investment portfolio

The investment portfolio comprises the Group’s wholly-owned investment properties together with the properties held for development.

Return to top


Joint venture

An entity in which the Group holds an interest and is jointly controlled by the Group and one or more venturers under a contractual arrangement. Decisions on financial and operating policies essential to the operation, performance and financial position of the venture require each partner’s consent.

Return to top


Lease incentives

Any incentive offered to occupiers to enter into a lease. Typically the incentive will be an initial rent-free period, or a cash contribution to fit-out or similar costs. For accounting purposes, under IFRS, the value of the rent-free period is spread over the non-cancellable life of the lease.


The London Interbank Offered Rate, the interest rate charged by one bank to another for lending money.

Like-for-like portfolio

The like-for-like portfolio includes all properties which have been in the portfolio since 1 April 2009, but excluding those which were acquired, sold or included in the development programme at any time during the period.

Loan-to-value (LTV)

Group LTV is the ratio of adjusted net debt, including joint ventures, to the sum of investment properties, net investment in finance leases and trading properties of both the Group and joint ventures, expressed as a percentage. For the Security Group, LTV is the ratio of net debt lent to the Security Group divided by the value of secured assets.

London Portfolio

This business segment includes all London offices and central London shops and assets held in London joint ventures.

Return to top


Market value

Market value is determined by the Group’s valuers, in accordance with the RICS Valuation Standards, as an opinion of the estimated amount for which a property should exchange on the date of valuation between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arm’s-length transaction after proper marketing.

Mark-to-market adjustment

An accounting adjustment to change the book value of an asset or liability to its market value.

Return to top


Net asset value (NAV) per share

Equity attributable to owners of the Parent divided by the number of ordinary shares in issue at the period end.

Net initial yield

Net initial yield is a calculation by the Group’s external valuers as the yield that would be received by a purchaser, based on the estimated net rental income expressed as a percentage of the acquisition cost, being the market value plus assumed usual purchasers’ costs at the reporting date. The calculation is in line with EPRA guidance.

Estimated net rental income is the passing cash rent less ground rent at the balance sheet date, estimated non-recoverable outgoings and void costs including service charges, insurance costs and void rates.

Return to top


Outline planning consent

This gives consent in principle for a development, and covers matters such as use and building mass. Full details of the development scheme must be provided in an application for full planning consent, including detailed design, external appearance and landscaping before a project can proceed. An outline planning permission will lapse if full planning permission is not granted within three years.


Space where the passing rent is above the ERV.

Return to top


Passing Cash Rent

The estimated annual rent receivable as at the reporting date which includes estimates of turnover rent and estimates of rent to be agreed in respect of outstanding rent review or lease renewal negotiations. Passing cash rent may be more or less than the ERV (see over-rented, reversionary and ERV). Passing cash rent excludes annual rent receivable from units in administration save to the extent that rents are expected to be received. Void units and units that are in a rent-free period at the reporting date are deemed to have no passing cash rent.


A lease signed with an occupier prior to completion of a development.

Property Income Distribution (PID)

A PID is a distribution by a REIT to its shareholders paid out of qualifying profits. A REIT is required to distribute at least 90% of its qualifying profits as a PID to its shareholders.

Proposed developments

Proposed developments are properties which have not yet received final Board approval or are still subject to main planning conditions being satisfied, but which are more likely to proceed than not.

Return to top


Qualifying activities/Qualifying assets

The ownership (activity) of property (assets) which is held to earn rental income and qualifies for tax-exempt treatment (income and capital gains) under UK REIT legislation.

Return to top


Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)

A REIT must be a publicly quoted company with at least three quarters of its profits and assets derived from a qualifying property rental business. Income and capital gains from the property rental business are exempt from tax but the REIT is required to distribute at least 90% of those profits to shareholders. Corporation tax is payable on non-qualifying activities in the normal way.

Rental value growth

Increase in the current rental value, as determined by the Company’s valuers, over the 12 month period on a like-for-like basis.

Retail warehouse park

A scheme of three or more retail warehouse units aggregating over 4,650m2 with shared parking.

Rental income

Rental income is as reported in the income statement, on an accruals basis, and adjusted for the spreading of lease incentives over the term certain of the lease in accordance with SIC 15. It is stated gross, prior to the deduction of ground rents and without deduction for operational outgoings on car park and commercialisation activities.

Retail Portfolio

This business segment includes our shopping centres, shops, retail warehouse properties and assets held in retail joint ventures but not central London shops.

Return on average capital employed

Group profit before interest, plus joint venture profit before tax, divided by the average capital employed (defined as shareholders’ funds plus net debt).

Return on average equity

Group profit before tax plus joint venture tax divided by the average equity shareholders’ funds.

Revenue profit

Profit before tax, excluding profits on the sale of non-current assets and trading properties, profits on long-term development contracts, valuation surpluses, fair value movements on interest-rate swaps and similar instruments used for hedging purposes, the adjustment to interest payable resulting from the amortisation of the bond exchange de-recognition, debt restructuring charges and any items of an unusual nature.

Reversionary or under-rented

Space where the passing rent is below the ERV.

Reversionary yield

The anticipated yield to which the initial yield will rise (or fall) once the rent reaches the ERV.

Return to top


Scrip dividend

Land Securities offers its shareholders the opportunity to receive dividends in the form of shares instead of cash. This is known as a Scrip dividend.

Security Group

Security Group is the principal funding vehicle for Land Securities and properties held in the Group are mortgaged for the benefit of lenders. It has the flexibility to raise a variety of different forms of finance.

Return to top


Temporary lettings

Lettings for a period of one year or less. These are included within voids.

Topped-up net initial yield

Topped-up net initial yield is a calculation by the Group’s external valuers. It is calculated by making an adjustment to net initial yield in respect of the annualised cash rent foregone through unexpired rent free periods and other lease incentives. The calculation is consistent with EPRA guidance.

Total business return

Dividend per share, plus the increase in adjusted diluted net asset value per share, divided by the adjusted diluted net asset value per share at the beginning of the year.

Total development cost (TDC)

Total development cost refers to the book value of the land at the commencement of the project, the estimated capital expenditure required to develop the scheme from the start of the financial year in which the property is added to our development programme, together with capitalised interest.

Total property return

Valuation surplus, profit/(loss) on property sales and net rental income in respect of investment properties expressed as a percentage of opening book value, together with the time weighted value for capital expenditure incurred during the current year, on the combined property portfolio.

Total shareholder return (TSR)

The growth in value of a shareholding over a specified period, assuming that dividends are reinvested to purchase additional units of the stock.

Trading properties

Properties held for trading purposes and shown as current assets in the balance sheet.

Turnover rent

Rental income which is related to an occupier’s turnover.

Return to top


Underlying operating profit

Operating profit before profit on disposal of non-current properties, revaluation of investment properties, and exceptional items stated within operating profit.

Return to top



Voids are expressed as a percentage of ERV and represent all unlet space, including voids where refurbishment work is being carried out and voids in respect of pre-development properties. Temporary lettings of up to 12 months are also treated as voids.

Return to top


Weighted average cost of capital (WACC)

Weighted average cost of debt and notional cost of equity, used as a benchmark to assess investment returns.

Return to top


Yield shift

A movement (negative or positive) in the equivalent yield of a property asset.

Return to top


Zone A

A means of analysing and comparing the rental value of retail space by dividing it into zones parallel with the main frontage. The most valuable zone, Zone A, is at the front of the unit. Each successive zone is valued at half the rate of the zone in front of it.

Return to top